PART 1, General Information
PART 2, BLOG Pictures and Galleries PART 3, VIDEO BOLIVIA
PART 1, GENERAL INFORMATION
Capital city: Sucre
Population: 11 million
Currency: Bolivian Bolíviano
Km travelled: 3750
Days in Bolivia: 44
Languages; Official Language is Spanish, but it also has 36 indigenous languages officially recognized.
Bolivia is a land locked country and is traditionally regarded as a highland country, although only one third of its territory lies in the Andes mountains. Bolivia’s mountainous western region is one of the highest inhabited areas in the world. Much of its history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president – by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 – after he ran on a promise to change the country’s traditional political class and empower the nation’s poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won re-election. His party-maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In February 2016, MORALES narrowly lost a referendum to approve a constitutional amendment that would have allowed him to compete in the 2019 presidential election.
Bolivia is sparsely populated and unspoilt by modern development, much of the land is untouched, preserving its natural beauty of rugged terrains, towering mountains, windswept plains and surreal salt flats. A trip through Bolivia will feel like a trip back in time. About 60% of the population identifies as indigenous, many of whom are maintaining traditional values and beliefs and often wear traditional dress. From the high mountain lakes of Titicaca to the steamy lowland jungles, Bolivia is an exciting destination with enormous cultural wealth, beautiful Andean landscapes and the remnants of mysterious ancient civilisations.
La Paz lies between 3,250 meters (City) and 4,100 metres (Suburb Alto Plano above sea level). The centre of the city lies in a deep, broad canyon formed by the La Paz, or Choqueyapu, River.
Although few colonial buildings survive, the narrow, steep, older streets, red-tile roofs, and highland Indians in colourful dress, with the mountain Nevado Illimani (6405 meters) and other snow-capped peaks in the background, give La Paz a distinctive atmosphere. Must do’s are the Sunday Markets in Alti Plano and the Mercado de Brujas (“Witches’ Market”), where herbs and other remedies used by the Aymara are sold. El Alto was one of the fastest growing suburbs in the world, its population increased from 300000 in 1990 to more than a half million in the mid-1995.
A small town in the North West of Bolivia on the Beni River. An easy gateway for visits to Madidi National Park and the surrounding pampas. There are 3 ways to reach Rurrenabaque. The most travelled route is the Yungas Road also known as the Death road. However, the old Yungas road can also be bypassed taking the new Yungas road. Riberalta south following the F8 the F3 from Trinidad or soon the f16 from Cobija (we are told) via Chive.
MADIDI NATIONAL PARK
The thick steamy jungle of this huge national park stretches from the snowy peaks of the Cordillera Real, all the way down to the Amazon River basin, making it one of the largest protected areas in the world. Madidi is famous for its phenomenal bird life. It has also an abundance of mammals, reptiles, fish and insects. If possible, try to attend an Ayahuasca ceremony with a local shaman.
Expect to see a huge array of exotic wildlife including several species of monkey, capybaras, snakes and anteaters. Bird watchers can tick off several species including the toucan and colourful blue macaw, while piranhas, pink dolphins, caiman and turtles can be spotted swimming in the water.
THE DEATH ROAD
The old Yungas Road is a cycle route about 60 km long which links the city of La Paz with the Pampas. The road was built in 1930. Because of steep slopes, a narrow single track, lack of guardrails, rain, and fog, the road was considered dangerous. Despite its nickname, it is not the most dangerous road in the region. Unlike the rest of the country, traffic is left-hand, to allow the driver to assess the distance of their outer wheel from the edge of the road. We were told this road is not exclusively for cycling activities, but this was incorrect when we visited the area. Locals told us over 20000 people visit this area per year and it has become a major tourist hub. The old road is 65 km long (new road bypasses the old Yungas road) and drops 3500 meters. The new route from La Paz to Yucumo bypassing the most dangerous sections of the original road.is mostly asphalt now, except for about 120km of still narrow roads. However, those 120km are still very interesting due to fog, landslides, waterfalls and cliffs that drop up to 1000 meters. Most of the track is not wider than 3 meters, but roadworks are ongoing, and it won’t belong before the whole road is sealed. Until the late 90’s up to 300 people were killed on this road every year! It was the only way to travel from La Paz to Coroico (70km) until 2006. However, an amazing experience with amazing scenery.
TARIJA This city in southern Bolivia is located at 1900 meters is one of Bolivia’s oldest settlements. The inhabitants are well known for their outdoor religious processions and festivals.
Lies in a fertile valley crossed by the Cachimayo River, at an altitude of 2790 meters. Many colonial churches survive, including the 17th-century Basílica Metropolitana and the churches of La Recoleta, San Lazaro, La Merced, San Miguel, and Santa Clara.
The city contains many examples of Spanish colonial architecture and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1991. Sucre is an easily walkable city and the older sections, with the white colonial buildings and their distinctive red-tiled roofs and balconies, offer nooks and crannies to explore. Home to a large indigenous population who maintain their traditional clothing and customs and sell their crafts and goods available in the markets and fairs.
Just 90 km southwest of Sucre. One of the world’s highest cities at 4050 meters high, it stands on a cold and barren plateau in the shadow of the fabled Potosi Mountain (Cerro Rico). Although it had floods and a few earthquakes, Potosí retains its colonial charm. Narrow and winding streets all seem to start from the central plaza. While in Potosi a must do is a visit to the mines in the Cerro Rico mountain (rich Mountain), although this is not for the faint hearted. Potosi’s Cerro Rico is also called the mountain that eats men. For centuries, Indian slaves mined the mountain’s silver in brutal conditions to bankroll the Spanish empire. Today, the descendants of those slaves run the mines. But hundreds of years of mining have left the mountain porous and unstable, and experts say it is in danger of collapsing. There are 600 mines, most of them abandoned, and about 60 miles of shafts that have left it hollowed out like a slab of Swiss cheese. Total collapse is possible. The Spanish called the mountain Cerro Rico, or Rich Mountain, for the silver they extracted from the mountain. Some 3 million Quechua Indians were put to work here over the years. Hundreds of thousands died, casualties of cave-ins, or killed by overwork, hunger and disease. Today, little appears to have changed. Up to 16,000 miners toil here much like their ancestors did, using picks, hammers, shovels and brute strength. Men and boys — sons of the miners — haul rocks to the surface on their backs. There are rail cars, but they are the old iron ones introduced to mining in the 19th century. There’s no lighting aside from workers’ headlamps, and no piped-in oxygen or safety regulations. Nonetheless, mining families here are proud of their role in the mine. The miners must lower themselves down rocky, tight holes barely big enough for a grown man. And then they spend hours heaving and hauling, all at an altitude of 4000 meters. Most only survive 15 years in the mine and die from inhaling the fine dust at the silver mines or finish up at home gasping for air. They live in a rough-and-tumble neighbourhood, at the base of the mountain. They frequently put on big parties, complete with brass bands and plenty of food and beer.
The world’s highest lake navigable to large vessels, lying at 3,810 metres above sea level. Titicaca is the second largest lake of South America (after Maracaibo). It covers some 8,300 square km. It covers 190 km north to south and around 80 km east to west. It also is the border between Peru and Bolivia. In the snow-covered Cordillera Real in the northeast shore of the lake, mountain peaks reach 6500 meters. The lake is between 150 and 180 meters deep and near the Bolivia side nearly 300 meters deep. More than 25 rivers empty their waters into Titicaca. The lake consists of 41 islands some very densely populated.
UYUNI SALT FLATS Video
The spectacular arid, windswept salt flat in south western Bolivia at 3,656 metres above sea level, covers an area of 10600 square kilometres. The Uyuni Salt Flat, Bolivia’s largest salt-encrusted waste area, is separated from the Coipasa Salt Flat, a similar but smaller feature to the north, by a range of hills. Vast reserves of untapped Lithium lie beneath the salt flat, and we hear Chinese have started mining the area. Uyuni is a windswept expanse that is even more extensive than Lake Titicaca. South of the Uyuni Salt Flat are the much smaller Lakes Colorado and Verde, as well as hot springs, geysers, and a rich variety of wildlife, all at the base of picturesque inactive volcanoes. This highland region is another must see area.
Is an extinct volcano and the highest peak in Bolivia at 6542 meters. Interesting fact is that the boundary is just 20 meters away from the border with Chile. A track runs along the south-eastern flank of the volcano, with additional roads completing a circle around Sajama. The town of Sajama lies on its western foot, with further villages at Caripe northeast and Lagunas southwest of the mountain
The climate of Bolivia varies drastically from one eco-region to the other, from the tropics in the east and north west to a cold and windy climate in the central and south west of Bolivia.
Winters are very cold in the west, and it snows in the mountain ranges, while in the western regions, windy days are more common.
The autumn is dry in the non-tropical regions. While in the north it is rainy and humid in the wet season and dry and warm during the rest of the year.
The summers are short, cool, and overcast and the winters are short, very cold, dry, and partly cloudy.
Summers are between 5 degrees at night to 18 degrees during the day. Winters are between -5 degrees at night and 15 degrees during the day.
Most rainfall is between Dec and March with around 75mm per month. April to Oct are the dry months. Rain can fall as snow on the higher parts of the city (Alto Plano)
Uyuni’s climate is a desert one. There is virtually no rainfall during the year.
Summer temperatures are around 5 degrees at night to 21 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around minus 6 degrees to 13 degrees during the day
Average rainfall: 150 mm per year but no rainfall between April and November.
The climate in Potosí is referred to as a local steppe climate with low rainfall (350mm Per annum)
Summer temperatures are around 5 degrees at night to 17 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around minus 5 degrees to 15 degrees during the day
Rain also falls as snow on a few days of the year
Sucre’s climate is classified as warm and temperate. When compared with winter, the summers have much more rainfall.
Summer temperatures are around 12 degrees at night to 24 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around 5 degrees at night to 22 degrees during the day
Rainfall: from Nov to March with average of 700mm per annum
In Tarija, there is little rainfall throughout the year.
Summer temperatures are around 14 degrees at night to 30 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around 3 degrees at night to 22 degrees during the day
Rainfall: from Nov to March with average of 550 mm per annum
COPACABANA (Lake Titicaca)
The climate in Copacabana is warm and temperate. When compared with winter, the summers have much more rainfall.
Summer temperatures are around 6 degrees at night to 17 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around 0 degrees at night to 16 degrees during the day
Wettest months from Oct to March. Yearly rainfall around 800 mm
Rurrenabaque climate is classified as tropical. There is a great deal of rainfall in Rurrenabaque, even in the driest month.
Summer temperatures are around 22 degrees at night to 32 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around 16 degrees at night to 30 degrees during the day
Wettest months from Oct to May. Yearly rainfall around 2000 mm
It is cold all year long.
Summer temperatures are around 0 degrees at night to 15 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around minus 10 degrees at night to 3 degrees during the day
Wettest months Jan/Feb. Yearly rainfall around 380 mm (200 mm falls in the months of Jan/Feb)
Climate is tropical. The summers here have a good deal of rainfall, while the winters have very little.
Summer temperatures are around 22 degrees at night to 35 degrees during the day.
Winter temperatures are around 20 degrees at night to 33 degrees during the day
Wettest months Oct to May. Yearly rainfall around 1800 mm.
PART 2, BLOG PICTURES AND GALLERIES
Tarija to Sucre
Our entry into Bolivia did not go like clockwork. Bolivia has a rule that only one vehicle can be imported per person? After the friendly custom lady tried to enter the scooter on a separate TIP the computer indicated that Robert Van Den Hoven already had one vehicle temporary imported and a second vehicle (the scooter) was not allowed!!! Hence, we explained to the custom lady that I would sell the scooter to Clary. Few phone calls and all was solved. The scooter is now owned by Clary.
After an overnight stop on the way we arrived in Tarija, as the locals will tell you the nicest town in Bolivia. Its location is nice in between valleys, forest and plains on the east side. Tarija It is also home to the wine producing area of Bolivia and has some of the highest (in altitude) vineyards in the world.
Our next destination was Sucre again also nominated by the locals as Bolivia’s most beautiful city. Here we decided to park our truck at Alberto and Felicidad’s small camp area (read back yard) highly recommended by Ioverlander. It was a popular spot and had just one site left for us when we arrived. The location is a winner right in the middle of the city. We stayed longer than planned but great company and a great host and his wife you can’t beat.
We visited the colourful markets and did our shopping, we visited the farmers market at the Mercado central, where on the top floor you can enjoy Bolivian cuisine. Make sure your stomach is used to local food!!!! as hygiene is not the same as at home. As we walked out, the butchers were trying to sell us the bloodied meat and all animals and carcasses are here on display.
Also, you can’t walk past the freshly made juices sold in the Mercado plaza. The market we wanted to visit but missed (only on Sunday) was the Tarabuco Market 40km East of Sucre where the Yampara people shop in traditional dress. Just outside Sucre we visited La Glorieta Castle. It is the tale of a Prince and Princess and the pink, crazy fairy-tale castle; both Prince and Princess were involved in charity. Prince Francisco became wealthy due to his shares in the Potosi silver mine.
The building now belongs to the military and is empty. Entry fee for an international tourist is double the price a Bolivian pays! Sucre General Cemetery has endless rows of stacked graves, hidden behind glass-plated shrines which are filled with photos, flowers and objects dear to the deceased. We never saw any children working but we are told over 100 children work here looking after graves and offering tours to tourists. Being disappointed with the view point from the top of the mountain as the trees were blocking the view, we were told about the area La Recoleta. At the bottom of the mountain we just drove up to that area and we had much better views over Sucre than from the top.
Potosi & the workplace from hell
It was time to leave Sucre, next stop Potosi one of the highest located cities in the world at nearly 4300 meters above sea level. It is a cold and barren place. In the year 1600 this was one of the wealthiest cities on earth. It also was larger than any European city at that time.
Since the Spanish arrived in 1500 they (possibly) shipped thousands of shiploads of silver over the next 300 years. But after the silver dried up Potosi has become one of the poor areas of Bolivia (despite miners earning 4 times the average wage in Bolivia). Today most make money out of tin, copper, lead and small amounts of silver. The day before and after the tour we explored Potosi. It became a major challenge to manoeuvre our 7 meters long and 3.7-meter-high truck through the town and for a while it reminded me of our travels in India, Pakistan and Nepal.
Potosi Mountain, better known as Cerro Rico (Rich Hill) in Potosi, has been called the “gates of hell” and is not a place for wimps. Before we started our tour we visited the miners market where we purchased sticks of Dynamite, and other explosives. It was also possible to purchase pure grain alcohol (96%), but our guide Wilson asked us not to as the miners were drinking too much of it already.
Off we went with a bag full of explosives (legal to purchase in Potosi). Next we were fitted out in overalls, hard hats and gum boots. From here we drove half way up mount Cerro de Potosí, and the last safety instructions followed before we entered the mine (we already had signed an accident waiver as we went at our own risk and were not insured). Wilson advised us not to fall down a hole, like a Japanese fellow did and he died, to not ignite the dynamite and to not hit your head. We had to crawl on our knees for the first 100 meters after entering the mine, before we could upright again. First stop EL TIO, the devil god of the mountain. Happy with the break to get my breath back. Wilson explained if you make Tio happy he will reward you with the discovery of a great mineral deposit. But if you upset him you can end up injured or killed in the mine due to cave ins and the like. Wilson poured pure alcohol over the statue and offered him a cigarette. During our next stop Wilson explained that in the 16th century Potosi was a very rich city, but today it is very poor. Today the miners are no longer employed, miners take out a contract on a plot of the mountain and do as they please, operating as sub-contractors supplying everything themselves and sell any of the minerals they mine to the buyers in town. The mine employs children sometimes as young as 10 years old but officially this is illegal we are told. It’s incredible to see these men and children at work and what they go through every single day. At one stage we saw a miner (Roberto) wedged in a crevice above us where we were walking. Robert was happy to show us how to detonate dynamite and after we gave him our dynamite he showed and explained this in detail. We were moved to a safe area (this is what we were told) before the big thud and the dust and sticky air hit our faces.
Roberto had detonated our present, hoping this would give him more money. After we climbed up a huge dust hill, it was time to slide down the dust hill again. What an experience, and not a touristy one but a complete working mine and we saw the hardship, lack of health and safety issues (NONE) and what it is like for miners to work in those terrible circumstances every day of the week. 28000 miners work like this every day, scraping out whatever ore deposits they can, inhaling dust and most of them (if not all) will eventually get silicosis, cancer or lung decease.
Average life expectancy for the miners is around 40 years. But today it is still the most profitable job in town for teenage boys and men looking after their families. For us crawling into a dark mine, not safe, and at an altitude of between 4300 and 4900 meters we were already struggling to catch our breath, without having to work do any work. The mines are still today the major source of income for the town, but all the silver was depleted a long time ago.
Is visiting the mine dangerous? Well based on the statistics it is, with around 35 miners killed each year. But so far only one tourist has died (this is what we are told, he fell down a shaft). The mine is a working mine and not a museum, health and safety issues are non-existing. Therefore, you must sign a disclaimer. Wilson expects the mine which is now in existence over 500 years, to cave in completely within 30 to 50 years. Hence work gets more dangerous every year. Wilson also assured us that visiting the mine just for a tour has no lasting health effects. The question remains why we visited a mine that claimed many million lives over the last 500 years?! ……. As our slogan states: YOU NEVER NEVER KNOW IF YOU NEVER NEVER GO
On Facebook I found this video clip about child labour it is called The Devil’s Miner a documentary about child labour inside Cerro Rico.
Salar de Uyuni
We arrived in Uyuni around midday and parked our truck at the train graveyard just out of town. The trains were used by the mining companies in the 1940’s and 50’s but with the mining industry collapsing many trains were abandoned, resulting in the train cemetery. The only reason this town survives is the nearby Salar the Uyuni. We walked around for an hour or so and this was enough.
The Salar de Uyuni is an amazing area. The Salar is considered one of the worlds most extreme vista’s in the world! It covers over 10000sq kilometres and is the world’s largest salt flat at an altitude of 4000 meters. The crust of salt extends till the horizon and has a great pattern.
The solid salt crust varies in thickness from 10 cm to a few meters. During our 2 nights stay the days were fine but the nights were cold at minus 10 degrees Celsius. We learned from the locals that the Chinese are mining for Lithium and Magnesium. Lithium is the most important as it is a vital component for the growing market of powering lap tops, smart phones and batteries for electric cars.
We are told Bolivia holds 43% of the world’s Lithium reserves and most are in the Salar de Uyuni. Besides the Lithium the Salar holds around 11 billion tonnes of salt. Across the Salar de Uyuni the altitude only varies by around 50 cm. This is what we call flat. And the feeling of infinity is amazing. The Salar is part of the Altiplano of the high Andes and is the world’s second largest plateau. The scenery surrounding the area is also amazing with volcanoes, hot springs and snow-capped mountains. We are sure we will visit this area again during 2019 wet season.
Should the Salar de Uyuni be mined as it will destroy the Salar?
For Bolivia (one of the poorest countries in the world) the question is: are they prepared to give in to the world hungry for resources and reap the rewards of mineral wealth to be able to offer impoverished people better lives but potentially destroy the Salar (and eco system) in the process? Alternatively, they could ask the world to pay them to leave the Lithium in the ground……….
SALAR DE UYUNI TO LA PAZ.
After 3 days at Uyuni it was time to travel north towards La Paz, 600km away. The mostly flat, perfect road lays at between 3800 and 4100 meters. We bush camped on the way. The only major town we passed was Oruro with a population of 270000 people at 3800 above sea level. (5th largest city in Bolivia) It is a dirty city (our view) that depends on mining, mainly Tin, Silver and Copper. From here it was double lanes all the way to La Paz. 20 kilometres before La Paz we took the short cut to the suburb of Malasa. It became the first test negotiating La Paz’s steep and narrow s streets after we took a wrong turn. La Paz is divided in 3 areas La Paz, El Alto and Viacha with a population of around 2.5 million people. La Paz is in a valley surrounded by very high mountains up to 6600 meters above sea level (Mount Illimani).
La Paz bustling streets, lots of traffic and narrow and steep streets is not for the fainthearted and after 2 years of civilized travel in South America, we required some adjustment and the traffic reminded us of India, Pakistan and Nepal. But as they say when in Rome……so beep the horn and never stop. One benefit we had was that we started to get used to the high altitude being at around 4000 meters for the last 3 weeks. But nevertheless, being out of breath reminded us of the high altitude every time we had to walk up a steep street.
We loved La Paz, it is chaotic but somehow it seems to have some type of system. Life in La Paz is basically on the streets and especially in the old quarters the whole place feels like one big market. Due to the high altitude, exploring La Paz is exhausting. But since 2014 or 2015 La Paz has the Teleferica the longest and highest cable car network in the world between 3600 meters and 4200 meters. La Paz is the first city in the world to use cable cars as its main transport system. The city now has 7 lines: Green, Yellow, Blue, White, Orange, Light Blue and Red. Each line has stops and to use this system is the best way to see La Paz.
Not sure what the people below think as we are watching them sitting on the patios or look into their houses. It used to take over one hour to travel from the city centre of La Paz to the suburb of El Alto, this is now reduced to 10 minutes. The system can carry over 3000 people per hour from the city centre to El Alto. Cost is 3 Bolivianos (0.60 cents Australian or 0.40 cents Euro), compared to 1.5 Bolivianos for the bus ride of 1 hour (0.30 Australian or 0.20 Euro cents). Built by Doppelmayer (Austria) the world leader in ski and cable car design, it has been designed to run on electricity and solar to reduce smog in the city. A great system, super clean, but the observation here is that it looks out of place in such an old city. But it employs hundreds of people, and during the height of construction it employed over 1400 people. The total cost we are told was just over 280 million USD. A great way to view the city from above and visit the highest Metropolis in the world El Alto at 4200 meters.
During our visit we twice visited El Alto and its markets. On Thursday and Sundays this is the biggest open-air market in Bolivia covering nearly 7 sq. kilometres. Both days the main road is closed for traffic, but the markets extend into all the side streets. Everything is for sale here from vehicles to toothbrushes, second hand shoes, car-parts, engines, tyres, clothing, watches, illegal copies of CD, video’s, and DVD, computer software, medical equipment, fake I pods, TV’s, radios, sofa’s, huge cabinets and beds etc etc. Basically, everything you can think off. The majority of the stall owners are indigenous ladies.
Another very interested area is the Witches market or Mercado de las Brujas. Stores and stalls full of coloured potions, curing everything from headaches to how to control your husband, potions to cure infertility etc etc. You can buy dried frogs, medicinal plants, dried llama foetuses and powders. But also dead baby llamas which hang from the ceiling in many shops. Our guide explained that many are still births???? But to be fair to the Bolivians in Bolivia the Llama foetuses are sacred. The dried Llama foetuses are buried under foundations of Bolivian houses as an offering to the goddess Pachamama and this will bring good luck. We have visited many cities in the world but only a few have a setting that can be vaguely compared to La Paz. But like many large cities it also has shacks hanging onto valley slopes on gradients you would not believe.
This is home to the many poor people in the poorest country of South America. We were parked at the carpark of Hotel Oberland in Zona Sur the better area of la Paz. More important for us was that the hotel sits at just 3300 meters, hence warmer than La Paz and a lot warmer than El Alto. Life is cheap in Bolivia, but you do need to negotiate; even for our diesel it was a constant battle to avoid paying the international price 8 Bolivian per litre while the local price is 3 Bolivian per litre. We were hoping to visit the Cholita Wrestling but run out of time and this is only on Thursdays we were told. Cholitas are indigenous woman wearing traditional skirts and hats. They fight each other to entertain the crowd however the whole experience we are told is extremely fake….
LA PAZ TO THE PERU BORDER
Leaving La Paz for Copacabana took us over 3 hours after we took the wrong turn. Traffic was mayhem and police have no control as the minibuses do what they like. However, the funny part of La Paz traffic is the dancing Zebra’s. Bolivians dressed up like Zebra’s who are running in front of cars to ensure they do not run red lights. It is a lot of fun to watch them. (The human zebra photos) are not ours. see video clip for our version.
Once out of La Paz the roads are good and traffic light. Copacabana is the only beach resort in Bolivia and it is filled with backpackers. We found a perfect spot on the beach and had 4 days of R&R. Copacabana is famous for its 16th century shrine the Basilica, home of the virgin of Copacabana. But the main attraction are the boat trips on Lake Titicaca and to the Isla del Sol, the sacred Inca island.
Lake Titicaca is the highest fresh water navigable lake in the world at just under 3850 meters above sea level. The locals call it the birthplace of the sun and the moon. For the Bolivians Lake Titicaca is also South America’s largest lake but some consider Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela South America’s largest lake. But this is disputed by Bolivians who believe Lake Maracaibo is an inlet rather than a lake and is salt water. Lake Titicaca is around 8300 sq. kilometres is 190 kilometres long and at its widest point 80 kilometres wide.
The lake is wedged between the Andean ranges in a large basin which covers over 58000 sq. kilometres all part of the Altiplano. Mountains around Lake Titicaca reach 6400 meters above sea level. Lake Titicaca is on average around 180 meters deep and its deepest point is 280 meters. With over 25 rivers emptying their waters into the lake evaporation is huge due to sun and strong winds. Lake Titicaca has more than 40 islands and some like Isla del Sol are densely populated. The local Aymara people living around the lake still follow ancient methods of farming on stepped terraces from the Inca times. Mostly they grow barley and grain. On the Peru side the Uru people still live on floating islands (reed) and have boats made from bundles of reed. But this part of Lake Titicaca we will visit next year (2019).
We decided to visit the Isla del Sol on the ferry and the village of Yumani. The ferry trip was an experience meeting the locals. On the way back to Copacabana we stopped off at Island del Luna home to more Inca ruins. Back in Copacabana the following day it was market day, a very colourful experience in the centre of Copacabana. Another interesting fact is that thousands of people drive to Copacabana to pour beer over their new cars to have it blessed for safe travel.
This is done by a priest and the blessing is to Pachamama, or mother Earth. After the blessing by the priest the owners pour beer over the car to stop the thirst of Pachamama. Unfortunately, we did not see the blessing, but we will be back next year. We camped one last night at Lake Titicaca enjoying the beauty of this lake, shimmering blue water, great sunsets and sunrises, it is like heaven. Our 4 weeks in Bolivia have come to an end. 4 weeks is by far not enough and we have only covered the western part of Bolivia. Next year we will cover the east and northern parts of Bolivia.
Our first impressions of Bolivia
Bolivia it is a country of extremes, it is landlocked and the highest and most isolated country in South America. It has borders with Brazil, Peru, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile. It has the largest group of indigenous people which account of 66% of the population. It has huge gas reserves. (second largest in South America) It is the largest producer of coca in the world (also the raw material for cocaine), for many poor farmers the only form of income.
Even though Bolivia is regarded as a Highland country only 33 % lays in the Andes Mountains where most of the larger cities are and 66% lays in the low lands. Or as called by the locals the warm lands. These are the area’s we will visit during our next visit to Bolivia once we return by the end of the year.
Bolivian Amazon & Death Road to Chile Border
2019 will be our 15th year on the road travelling around the world. In 2018 we visited Bolivia 3 times, and even after 3 visits we have not seen it all. In fact, 15 years of travelling around the world despite having seen a lot, still did not allow us to explore each country completely. This will be our last visit to Bolivia from here we heading further North into South America. Bolivia is a landlocked country around 1500km north to south and 1200km east to west. It is known as an Andean country but only 30% is highland the rest is low land and Amazon territory. However, it is the western region where the larger cities are and the Capital La Paz. This part makes Bolivia one of the highest populated areas in the world (at 3500 to 4500 meters). North and south west of La Paz are the highest areas up to 6550 meters with Mount Sajama near the Chile Border and Cordillera Real around 6100 meters. The snow-capped peaks are an amazing sight on a nice day. For over 300 km lies the Altiplano at elevations of around 3800 to 4000 meters. The reason for our last visit to Bolivia is to visit the Pampas and the Amazon region of Bolivia. Yes, it is wet season, but this is when you like to see the wet tropics. First stop was Alto Plano and La Paz. La Paz is the capital city of Bolivia and during our last visit we had snow and sleet, this time the weather was slightly better but still cold (altitude 4000meters). La Plaz is the highest capital city in the world. On our last visit we spent 1 week in La Paz, this stop we spent just 2 days as we were on our way to the tropical Amazon region of Rurrenabaque and Santa Rosa. But before descending towards the Amazon region we first had to climb to 4650 meters and the La Cumbre pass. From here it was all downhill driving through rain and thick forested terrain which turned into rainforest the lower we came. The road also called Death Road according to locals used to claim up to 300 lives every year around 2010. The new road is now being build but some parts are as dangerous if not more dangerous as the original Death Road. The 35 km to Coroico descends from 4650 meters to just over 1200 meters with deep valleys and narrow one lane tracks but has beautiful tropical landscapes. At this altitude we arrived in the Yungas (warm lands); on our way down we could see deep in the valley cars and crosses where cars, trucks and busses failed to make it. Parts of this road are single lane and no guard rails with cliffs up to 1000 meters down. Our 2.50meter wide truck would just fit on the 3-meter-wide track.
During our return journey rain and fog made the track slippery, muddy and the visibility poor. Unable to do the top part of the Death Road due to thick fog we had to be satisfied with the bottom end. But we still believe the roads in North West India and Pakistan were much more of a challenge mainly due to the large amounts of traffic and the subsequent reversing. Our next destination was Rurrenbaque in the Amazonian zone of Bolivia. After the cold and windy weather in La Paz it took some time to get acclimatized again to the 38C Degree heat. Rurrenabaque lays on the border of Madidi National Park and was established in 1995. The area covers from Lowland Rurrenabaque at 200 meters altitude to nearly 6000 meters above sea level. This is where the Amazon meets the Andes.
A great area of Rainforest, Rivers, Wetlands (pampas) and the guide told us it even has glaciers. This area flows over into Peru where it is called the Manu Biosphere and the locals told us it is one of the largest protected areas in the world. (we have heard this before!) To cross the river, you still need to catch a ferry, but it looks like next year the bridge across the Beni river is ready. While visiting the pampas just outside Santa Rosa (120km north of Rurrenabaque) we found a great camp spot on lake Bravo. (be aware of mosquitos).
For us the highlight of the pampas were the pink dolphins. Up to 2.7 meters long and weighing up to 140 kilo’s they are the largest freshwater dolphins in the world. (See Nat Geo video clip as we had difficulty capturing the Pink Dolphins on film). https://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/00000144-0a28-d3cb-a96c-7b2d1ba00000 The area also has some political tension as the word is the government wants a Dam project at the Beni river in the Bala Gorge; if this project goes ahead it will flood a large part of Madidi National park.
The other concern in the area is the Ixiamas to Apolo road project. This road is being build only for the purpose of timber harvesting This will also affect Madidi National Park. After visiting Madidi and the Pampas in Santa Rosa we camped at El Mirador in Rurrenabaque, a great spot on top of the hill with a beautiful swimming pool and a great host called Pepe. Most people do not realize that Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and a small part of Venezuela account for 30% of the area called the Amazon Region. Brazil covers the other 70%.
After one week at El Mirador it was time to look for some cooler weather and explore some new areas so we slowly are driving towards the border with Chile to enter Peru from Arica in far North Chile. It was market day in La Paz as we arrived from the north and traffic was absolute chaos, some roads were blocked, completely confusing maps.me that sent us into one way streets, dead end streets and streets with a gradient of 36% which made me unable to stop the truck at crossings hoping for others to stop!!!!
No laws seem to work, police officers whistle and no one seems to care, cars jump red lights and most intersections are blocked by drivers ignoring rules. 3hours later we covered the 11 km across the city of La Paz initially descending from 4200 meters on the north side down to 3200m in the city and climbing up again to 4100 meters to the southside suburb near the airport called El Alto. Unlike our previous visit we never saw the human zebra’s looking after people crossing the streets. (these zebra wardens ensure that drivers respect the law with regard to pedestrian crossings, or at least they try. See previous blog Bolivia) After La Paz we entered the department of Oruro and the city of Oruro is well known for the biggest carnival in South America after Rio de Janeiro.
Next stop was Curahuara a great little village typical of the Altiplano and well know for its old church built in 1806. Our next stop was Sajama National Park with views of the highest peak in Bolivia at 6550 meters high. It was cold, snowing and miserable and It took some time to get used to the altitude again (4300 above sea level), hence we continued the following day and crossed the border into Chile. This border handles 500 trucks per day and the line of trucks was enormous (at least 5 km on the Bolivia side) and with just 2 lanes (one blocked by trucks) it was challenging with oncoming traffic. Bolivia out took less than 5 minutes but Chile in took over 2 hours and the usual car inspection. In the mean time at 4680 meters it was still snowing and a miserable 1 degree and windy. So, time to come down to around 3750 meters to the town of Putre for our overnight camp, before heading to Arica on the coast to spend Christmas with friends on the beach.